Blood-forming elements like red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets are produced in the marrow spaces of bone. Stem cells are precursor cells that produce the above elements of the blood. Stem cell transplantation (bone marrow transplantation, BMT) is useful in adult patients with many hemato-oncological disorders. A successful BMT helps to reduce the chances of disease recurrence and even to achieve a complete cure in many patients.
Autologous BMT is the process where disease-free stem cells are collected from the patient itself after clearing underlying cancer such as multiple myeloma, lymphoma or germ cell tumor with prior chemotherapy. Autologous BMT is then employed as a consolidation procedure to protect the patient from future disease recurrence. In addition to cancers of the blood, lymph nodes, and bone marrow, this procedure has an established role in patients with systemic disorders such as multiple sclerosis, scleroderma, and other autoimmune conditions.
Allogeneic BMT involves the collection of healthy stem cells not from the patient but from another healthy person. The donor can be a brother, sister, another family member or even a totally unrelated person provided there is an acceptable genetic level human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match with the patient. Allogeneic BMT is much more intensive than autologous BMT and is usually done for adult patients with leukemia, aplastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, MDS, PNH, and relapse of lymphoma in spite of previous autologous BMT.
At Aster Hospitals Bangalore BMT units, you will get the most advanced technology and equipment, up-to-date infrastructure, leading experts in the field, and above all, the commitment and dedication to run such a highly demanding Haemato-Oncology service successfully.
Myths about BMT
1. BMT involves a major surgical operation
This is not true. Unlike solid organ transplantation, BMT is not done by a surgeon in the operation theatre. Cells are collected and transplanted using a central venous line into a large vein.
2. Donor may have lifelong risks
This is incorrect. Nowadays, stem cells are collected from a vein in the arm. For the donor, it is almost like a blood donation, except that the donation may take around 4 hours. Donors will be healthy and fine after the donation process.
3. BMT can be performed in any center
This is also not true. The success of BMT depends not only on the expertise of the Hemato-Oncologist but also on the competency of the nursing staff and the infection control measures in the BMT unit. Good centers will have infrastructure compliant with Center for Disease Control (CDC) recommendations.
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What is a Bone Marrow Transplant?
A bone marrow transplant is also known as stem cell transplant. It is a type of treatment used to replace an unhealthy marrow with a healthy one. It is used to treat diseases such as blood cancers like leukaemia or lymphoma, bone marrow diseases such as aplastic anaemia and other immune systems or genetic disease like sickle cell disease. If you are searching for Best Oncology Hospital in Bangalore, then visit Aster International Institute of Oncology. We are located in Aster CMI Hospital in Hebbal, Aster Whitefield Hospital and Aster RV Hospital in JP Nagar, Bangalore.